The selected marine areas are managed by Spanish local or central governments, depending on the distribution of their waters. Columbretes and Tabarca Islands and Cabo de Gata Nijar (ESZZ16010, ES0000214 and ES0000046) are marine protected areas of fisheries interest. Cap de Creus (ES5120007) and Montgo (ES5211007) are protected areas managed by local Government form Cataluña and Comunidad Valenciana respectively, including the surrounding marine waters. In these areas the uses are controlled under strict legislation (e.g. restrictions to tourism, fishing, infrastructure development, etc.). Penyal d’Ifach and Penyasegats de la Marina (ES5211009 and ES5213018) are SAC where specific use legislation is in development.
The Ebro Delta (ES0000020) The main land use in the Ebro Delta with ca. 70% of the present surface of 320,000 ha is rice cultivation. This causes an important impact on the bays, which receive all the agricultural wastewater between the months of April/May and September. This causes important salinity reductions, which are particularly important in the Fangar Bay due to its considerably smaller size.
Area 3: The Mar Menor (ES0000260, ES0000271, ES6200029, ES6200006, ES0000175, ES6200007) is characterized by a great socio-economic dynamic, with a convergence of activities such as agriculture, tourism, fishing, old mining exploitations, etc. These activities constitute driving forces generating pressures which have generated impacts for decades. The socioeconomic changes in recent years have caused loss of both natural and cultural values as well as traditional uses. The current situation of the Mar Menor urgently demands actions from an integral approach, with the ultimate goal of conserving and replenishing the natural capital and ecosystem services of the lagoon.
Kalloni Gulf (GR4110004) is surrounded by mostly private agricultural land or uncultivated fields. There is no urban development around the gulf but only a few small coastal villages. Two salt works operate in the gulf, in the northern and southeastern part. There are artisanal fishing activities, and the gulf is famous for its sardines and bivalves. There are a few recreational areas and beaches but with low touristic activity. Shellfish aquaculture has been planned in specific locations but no shellfish farm is currently operational.
Selected marine areas along Italian coasts comprehend various habitats suitable for P. nobilis. Cilento Area, Punta Campanella and Ischia island include Marine Protected Areas and Partial Nature Reserve, Law 394/1991. The project in the selected regions in Italian waters will help in maintaining the limited areas left with reservoirs for P. nobilis. Reported data described still untouched areas in different lagoons and protected bays, even if recently a small percentage of mortality episodes have been described.
Brusc Lagoon (FR9302001) The surface area is 99% marine. The remaining 1% is constituted by the Embiez and Rouveau islands. The Rouveau is an uninhabited protected area managed by the "Conservatoire du Littoral". The Embiez island is privately owned by the Ricard family. The main activity of the island consists of tourism during the summer period. There is a limited wineyard activity. This island also hosts a harbour with a capacity of 750 sailing and motor boats. The East part of the area is bordered by the hamlet of "Le Brusc" and its harbour (850 berths).